Using Kubernetes to Manage Containers and Cluster Resources (Part 2 of 4)

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This is part 2 of a 4-part blog series, based on the MapR Academy course, BUS – Application Containers and Kubernetes

For part 1 of this series, please refer to this blog.

This second blog post in the Containers and Kubernetes series discusses how Kubernetes manages containers and resources.

Kubernetes is an environment that automates the orchestration of application containers. What does "Kubernetes automated orchestration" cover? It covers deployment, scaling, management, monitoring, and upgrades of individual, containerized microservices. Kubernetes takes care of all of the maintenance and tools around running application containers, so you can focus on application functionality.

Application Deployment

Deploying an application with Kubernetes requires just a single command. In the background, Kubernetes creates the runtime environment, requests the needed resources, handles the launch of the services, and provides each with an IP address. It also scales the containers across the cluster until each service is deployed to the level requested and maintains these levels 24/7.

Application Scaling

You decide how many clones of each service are needed. Because the services are containerized, you can set different levels for different parts of the app. When you first deploy, you calculate some starting numbers for each service. Kubernetes makes sure each service is running the correct number of copies. If there are too few, it will launch more. If there are too many, it will kill a few until the correct number are running.

Application Scale

Suppose you determine that there are too many copies of a service running and they are sitting dormant, or that application usage has increased and you need more copies to handle the load. You can change the settings on the deployment file, redeploy, and Kubernetes will update the number of each running service to meet the new requirements.

High Availability

Kubernetes watches how many copies of each service are up. If a container has a failure and goes down, Kubernetes launches a new copy. Kubernetes continually verifies that the number of each service on the system matches what was requested.

If an entire server goes down, Kubernetes redeploys the missing containers on other nodes, again until the number of services running matches the defined limits. You can rest assured that your app will achieve the required six nines of availability, as long as your data center is active.

Load Balancing

Kubernetes continuously monitors the usage of containers across nodes, verifying that the work is evenly distributed. If it finds an underused container or resource, it moves work to that resource, and may even move copies of a container to underused hardware.

Communication

When applications are broken into microservices, the individual services need to talk to each other, in order to pass along client information. Kubernetes creates a service within itself to enable the different microservices to communicate. This communication service determines which containers can use it, based on labels on the container, and then defines a port that can be used by any container with that label.

As a service reads data from a wearable device on a customer, it will pass that data to the other services in the app that will stream the data, authenticate it with the health-care provider, and so on. Each instance of any service can use the same port to communicate with the other microservices in the app or any other services on the cluster that it needs.

The communication service in Kubernetes is persistent, independent of the services that use it. If a container goes down or a new container is spun up, the service will continue to be available at its port to any application with the correct label.

Multi-Tenancy

Let's consider the example of a health-monitoring application, serving thousands of users, sending data to a variety of health-care providers. With Kubernetes, the services could be divided up by health-care provider. Each provider could offer a differing number of services, based on usage, or could even provide variations on a service to a client, based on that client's particular needs.

For example, say that this application spins up three copies of the app for users of Mega-Health, but provides four copies to Health R Us because they have a larger customer base. In addition, Health R Us uses a communication protocol different from Mega-Health – so, a separate microservice is used to connect to their system.

Rolling Upgrades

When an application update is ready to roll out, the Kubernetes deployment file needs to be updated with the new information.

Kubernetes will gradually kill existing containers with the current version of the app and spin up new containers with the updated version, until all containers for that service are running the new version.

Rolling Downgrades

If there is a problem along the way, you can roll back the upgrade with a single command. Kubernetes will gradually kill containers with the new 2.0 version of the app and replace them with new instances of the older 1.0 version.

The next post in the Containers and Kubernetes series provides an overview of Kubernetes Architecture.


This blog post was published October 18, 2018.
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