OJAI Documents

An OJAI document is a tree of fields. Each field has a type and a value, and also has either a name or an array index. Field names are strings. The root of each document is a map.

For example, an online retailer of sports equipment might have this OJAI document for storing data about a set of bicycle pedals:

{
  "_id" : "2DT3201",
  "product_ID" : "2DT3201",
	"name" : " Allegro SPD-SL 6800",
	"brand" : "Careen",
	"category" : "Pedals",
	"type" : "Components,
	"price" : 112.99,
	"features" : [
      "Low-profile design",
      "Floating SH11 cleats included"
	],

	"specifications" : {
		"weight_per_pair" : "260g",
		"color" : "black"
	}
}

Data Types

Scalar Data
These fields can contain strings or numbers. The scalar fields in the sample document are highlighted in bold below.
{
      "_id" : "2DT3201",
      "product_ID" : "2DT3201",
	"name" : " Allegro SPD-SL 6800",
	"brand" : "Careen",
	"category" : "Pedals",
	"type" : "Components,
	"price" : 112.99,

	"features" : [
		"Low-profile design",
		"Floating SH11 cleats included"
	],

	"specifications" : {
		"weight_per_pair" : "260g",
		"color" : "black"
	}
}
Scalar fields can contain the following data types:
Data Type Description
Binary An uninterpreted sequence of bytes.
Boolean A data type of two possible values that are typically denoted by true and false.
Byte A 8-bit signed integer.
Date A 32-bit integer representing the number of DAYS since epoch, i.e. January 1, 1970 00:00:00 UTC. The value is absolute and is time-zone independent.
Double A double-precision 64-bit floating-point number
Float A single-precision 32-bit floating-point number
Int A 32-bit signed integer
Long A 64-bit signed integer
Short A 16-bit signed integer
String A sequence of characters.
Time A 32-bit integer representing time of the day in milliseconds. The value is absolute and is time-zone independent.
Timestamp A 64-bit integer representing the number of milliseconds since epoch, i.e. January 1, 1970 00:00:00 UTC. Negative values represent dates before epoch.
Nested Documents
These fields can contain documents that themselves contain scalar data, nested documents, and arrays. The nested document in the sample document is highlighted in bold below.
{ 
      "_id" : "2DT3201",
      "product_ID" : "2DT3201", 
      "name" : " Allegro SPD-SL 6800",
	"brand" : "Careen",
	"category" : "Pedals",
	"type" : "Components,
	"price" : 112.99,

	"features" : [
		"Low-profile design",
		"Floating SH11 cleats included"
	],

	"specifications" : {
		"weight_per_pair" : "260g",
		"color" : "black"
	}
}
Arrays
These fields contain lists of values that are accessible by means of index numbers. The values can be scalar, documents, arrays, or a combination of any of these types. For example, the array in the sample document is highlighted in bold below and contains scalar values.
{ 
      "_id" : "2DT3201",
      "product_ID" : "2DT3201", "name" : " Allegro SPD-SL 6800",
	"brand" : "Careen",
	"category" : "Pedals",
	"type" : "Components,
	"price" : 112.99,

	"features" : [
		"Low-profile design",
		"Floating SH11 cleats included"
	],

 "specifications" : {
		"weight_per_pair" : "260g",
		"color" : "black"
	}
}

Schema Flexibility

The structure of each document, called the document's schema, is easy to change. Simply add new fields. For example, if the online retailer wanted to allow customers to review products, it would be simple to add the reviews to any document for a product.

In this example, highlighted in bold, the comments are added as in an array of documents:

{     
      "_id" : "2DT3201",
      "product_ID" : "2DT3201",       
      "name" : " Allegro SPD-SL 6800",
	"brand" : "Careen",
	"category" : "Pedals",
	"type" : "Components,
	"price" : 112.99,

	"features" : [
		"Low-profile design",
		"Floating SH11 cleats included"
	],

	"specifications" : {
		"weight_per_pair" : "260g",
		"color" : "black"
	},

  "comments" : [
        {
            "username" : "hlmencken",
            "comment" : "Best money I ever spent!"
        },
        {
            "username" : "vwoolf",
            "comment" : "What hlmencken said!"
        }    
   ]
}

Dotted Notation for Identifying Fields

A number of the Java methods and maprcli commands for working with OJAI documents require you to identify individual fields by specifying their paths. A field path is the name of each field in sequence that leads to the particular field that you are interested in. The names are separated by periods.

For example, suppose you had a document with this structure:

{
  "a" : {
          "b" : {
                  "c" : {
                          "d" : "value_for_d"
                        }
                 }
         }
} 
The path for field d would be a.b.c.d.

Tools for Working with OJAI Documents

There are two tools that you can use for creating, reading, updating, and deleting JSON documents in MapR-DB:
MapR-DB JSON API
Learn the basics of this API here: CRUD Operations for JSON Tables
The mapr dbshell
This shell is a light-weight tool for manipulating JSON tables and documents. Learn more about it here: mapr dbshell